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Title

Automated algorithms of decision making on air traffic management problems

Author/Authors

V.A. Borsoev, G.N. Lebedev, V.B. Malygin, Y.Y. Nechayev, A.O. Nikulin, Tin Phone Kyaw. Under editorship of D. Eng., Prof. Y.Y. Nechayev

Pages

346

Publication date

2017

Type

The monograph

Format

Paper book

1000 Rub

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The following problems are considered in this monograph: separate rearrangement of arrival and departure aircraft flows; processes of aircrafts’ simultaneous departure; automation of near collision analysis in arrival and departure flows. Sheremetyevo airport “Synchron” system operation is analyzed; this system supports uninterruptible cooperation of more than 2000 partners and entities that provide all airport services for the passengers, luggage, cargo, and aircrafts. Some algorithms that use genetic and artificial intellect methods, specifically neural networks, are suggested for air traffic management.

The monograph is designed for air traffic management specialists, personnel of airport services and air traffic services providers.

The book comprises 5 divisions. Division 1.1 is written by D.Eng. V.A. Borsoev, division 1.2 – by V.B. Malygin, division 1.3 – by D.Eng., Prof. Y.Y. Nechaev, division 2 – by D.Eng. Tin Phone Kyaw and D.Eng., Prof. G.N. Lebedev, division 3 – by D.Eng., Prof. G.N. Lebedev and V.B. Malygin, division 4 – by D.Eng. Tin Phone Kyaw and V.B. Malygin, division 5 – by A.O. Nikulin.

The monograph is designed for air traffic management specialists, personnel of airport services and air traffic services providers.

The book comprises 5 divisions. Division 1.1 is written by D.Eng. V.A. Borsoev, division 1.2 – by V.B. Malygin, division 1.3 – by D.Eng., Prof. Y.Y. Nechaev, division 2 – by D.Eng. Tin Phone Kyaw and D.Eng., Prof. G.N. Lebedev, division 3 – by D.Eng., Prof. G.N. Lebedev and V.B. Malygin, division 4 – by D.Eng. Tin Phone Kyaw and V.B. Malygin, division 5 – by A.O. Nikulin.

Introduction

References for Introduction

1. CNS/ATM technologies application to avoid air traffic controller’s error actions

1.1. Telecommunication in CNS/ATM conception

1.1.1. Aeronautical stationary means of telecommunication

1.1.2. Aeronautical mobile means of telecommunication

1.1.3. Airborne means of telecommunication

References for div.1.1.

1.2. Area navigation in CNS/ATM conception

1.2.1. RNAV Points

1.2.2. Review of route encoding by Path Terminators

1.2.3. Routes and diagrams for area navigation

1.2.3.1. Standard SID, STAR routes

1.2.3.2. “Trombone”-type standard arrival diagram

1.2.3.3. “Fan”-type standard arrival diagram (Point merge)

1.2.3.4. Conflict free area navigation routes

1.2.4. Arrival flow management(AMAN)

1.2.5. Performance-based navigation (PBN) implementation planning for airspace given

1.2.6. Airspace structure design

1.2.7 . Probability method for determining of airspace elements throughput capacity

References for div.1.2.

1.3. Surveillance in CNS/ATM conception

1.3.1. Retrospective review of creation and development of radar systems in Russia

1.3.2. Radar systems improvement during World War II and afterwards

1.3.3. Location and target pinpointing radars of the second generation

1.3.4. Radar systems for civil aviation

1.3.5. Direction for development of surveillance radar systems of the third generation

References for div.1.3.

2. Optimization methods for air traffic controller’s activities

2.1. Analysis of common methods for parametric optimization

2.2. Linear programming in optimization problems

2.2.1. Method for formalization of air traffic management quality criterion in linear form by means of linear programming inverse problem

2.2.2. Linear programming forward solution (example 1)

2.2.3. Procedure for nearest peaks position determination for a given forward solution

2.2.4. Data matrix formation for a selected optimal peak without using objective function string

2.2.5. General procedure for inverse simplex-method of linear programming solution

2.2.6. Accuracy estimation for inverse linear programming solution

2.2.7. Examples of inverse simplex-method application to the problem of safe intervals between aircrafts

2.3. Pontryagin’s maximum principle application to the optimal control problems

2.3.1. Optimal speed-of-response problem in linear systems

2.3.2. Setting up a problem of the united parametric criterion coefficients identification

2.3.3. Flight safety level estimation for randomly situated aircrafts in a given airspace

2.3.4. Method of uniting ATM safety level and efficiency estimations in one parametric criterion

2.3.5. Inverse linear programming application for estimation of united parametric criterion’s immeasurable parameters

2.4. Dynamic programming for optimization problems

2.4.1. Solution to the problem of priority assignment in the line of approaching aircrafts by means of dynamic programming

2.4.2. Solution to the problem of dynamic priority assignment for the aircrafts on the parallel courses using Bellman’s equation

2.4.3. Solution to the problem of dynamic priority assignment for the aircrafts on the arbitrary courses

2.4.4. Example of dynamic priorities computation for the line of the approaching aircrafts with different fuel quantities

2.5. Analytical design of optimal regulators (ADOR)

2.6. Estimation of queuing theory applicability to optimization problems

2.6.1. Non-preferential service of aircrafts queue for a given landing interval

2.6.2. Solution to the problem of aircraft non-preferential service for the “trombone”-type standard arrival diagram

2.6.3. Queuing theory apparatus application to computation of passengers’ requests fulfillment before and after landing in the airport

2.6.3.1. Computation of probabilistic state for the system of passengers queue non-preferential service

2.6.3.2. Computation of probabilistic state for the system of passengers queue preferential service

2.6.3.3. Algebraic generalization of conditions for system’s probabilistic state shift

2.6.3.4. Choice of the number of passenger service channels in the airport based on the minimal average cost criterion with the interaction between channels

References for div. 2

3. Automated algorithms of air traffic controller’s activities support

3.1. Algorithm of the aircraft 4D trajectory vertical adjustment according to air traffic controller’s instructions

3.2. Solution algorithm of automated response to aviation hub airspace configuring structure modification

3.3. Setting up a problem of optimized queue of aircrafts for landing on the different aerodromes with standard arrival routes configuration

3.4. Algorithm of aircraft priority assignment for landing on a given aerodrome without consideration of its distance from the respective standard arrival route

3.5. Algorithm of sequential forming of aircraft priority lists for a given standard arrival route

3.6. Algorithm of priority assignment for aircraft landing on a given runway

3.6.1. Setting up a problem of arrival flow forming after haphazard modification of at least one arrival route of the aviation hub

3.6.2. Algorithm of landing priority assignment for randomly situated aircrafts with random courses

References for div. 3

4. Automation methods for in-trail flight safety level monitoring

4.1. Setting up a problem of air traffic management automation on a given flight level

4.2. On penalty coefficients for integral in-trail air traffic performance criterion

4.3. Management and safety control synthesis for in-trail air traffic

4.4. Results of in-trail movement modeling for two aircrafts

References for div. 4

5. Automated algorithms of airlines, aerodrome services, and ATM regulator interaction during innovative CDM-technologies implementation

5.1. General approach and principles of CDM

5.1.1. Airport integration in the ATM network

5.1.2. CDM systems in different airports of the world

5.2. CDM system in Sheremetyevo airport

5.2.1. Key conceptual modifications during A-CDM procedures implementation

5.2.2. Implementation process of A-CDM system project in Sheremetyevo airport

5.2.3. Demand-Capacity adjustment on the strategic stage of flight planning

5.2.4. Airlines operator’s role in air traffic schedule forming

5.2.5. Airport coordinator’s role in air traffic schedule forming

5.2.6. The role of the central bank of schedules and slots (CBSS)

5.2.7. The role of the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.3. Conception elements of Sheremetyevo airport CDM system

5.3.1. Conception element “Data exchange”

5.3.2. Conception element “Staged approach”

5.3.3. Conception element “Personalized taxiing time”

5.3.4. Personalized taxiing time for arrivals

5.3.5. Personalized taxiing time for departures

5.3.6. Conception element “General procedure during preparation for departure”

5.3.7. Conception element “Collaborative decision making in severe operation environment”

5.3.8. Conception element “Joint control on flight information updating”

5.3.8.1. Flight update message (FUM) — data exchange with the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.3.8.2. Early DPI (E-DPI) – data exchange with the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.3.8.3. Target DPI (T-DPI) - data exchange with the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.3.8.4. ATC DPI (A-DPI) – data exchange with the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.3.8.5. Cancel DPI (C-DPI) - data exchange with the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.4. Risk management

5.5. Conclusion

References for div. 5

Contents

References for Introduction

1. CNS/ATM technologies application to avoid air traffic controller’s error actions

1.1. Telecommunication in CNS/ATM conception

1.1.1. Aeronautical stationary means of telecommunication

1.1.2. Aeronautical mobile means of telecommunication

1.1.3. Airborne means of telecommunication

References for div.1.1.

1.2. Area navigation in CNS/ATM conception

1.2.1. RNAV Points

1.2.2. Review of route encoding by Path Terminators

1.2.3. Routes and diagrams for area navigation

1.2.3.1. Standard SID, STAR routes

1.2.3.2. “Trombone”-type standard arrival diagram

1.2.3.3. “Fan”-type standard arrival diagram (Point merge)

1.2.3.4. Conflict free area navigation routes

1.2.4. Arrival flow management(AMAN)

1.2.5. Performance-based navigation (PBN) implementation planning for airspace given

1.2.6. Airspace structure design

1.2.7 . Probability method for determining of airspace elements throughput capacity

References for div.1.2.

1.3. Surveillance in CNS/ATM conception

1.3.1. Retrospective review of creation and development of radar systems in Russia

1.3.2. Radar systems improvement during World War II and afterwards

1.3.3. Location and target pinpointing radars of the second generation

1.3.4. Radar systems for civil aviation

1.3.5. Direction for development of surveillance radar systems of the third generation

References for div.1.3.

2. Optimization methods for air traffic controller’s activities

2.1. Analysis of common methods for parametric optimization

2.2. Linear programming in optimization problems

2.2.1. Method for formalization of air traffic management quality criterion in linear form by means of linear programming inverse problem

2.2.2. Linear programming forward solution (example 1)

2.2.3. Procedure for nearest peaks position determination for a given forward solution

2.2.4. Data matrix formation for a selected optimal peak without using objective function string

2.2.5. General procedure for inverse simplex-method of linear programming solution

2.2.6. Accuracy estimation for inverse linear programming solution

2.2.7. Examples of inverse simplex-method application to the problem of safe intervals between aircrafts

2.3. Pontryagin’s maximum principle application to the optimal control problems

2.3.1. Optimal speed-of-response problem in linear systems

2.3.2. Setting up a problem of the united parametric criterion coefficients identification

2.3.3. Flight safety level estimation for randomly situated aircrafts in a given airspace

2.3.4. Method of uniting ATM safety level and efficiency estimations in one parametric criterion

2.3.5. Inverse linear programming application for estimation of united parametric criterion’s immeasurable parameters

2.4. Dynamic programming for optimization problems

2.4.1. Solution to the problem of priority assignment in the line of approaching aircrafts by means of dynamic programming

2.4.2. Solution to the problem of dynamic priority assignment for the aircrafts on the parallel courses using Bellman’s equation

2.4.3. Solution to the problem of dynamic priority assignment for the aircrafts on the arbitrary courses

2.4.4. Example of dynamic priorities computation for the line of the approaching aircrafts with different fuel quantities

2.5. Analytical design of optimal regulators (ADOR)

2.6. Estimation of queuing theory applicability to optimization problems

2.6.1. Non-preferential service of aircrafts queue for a given landing interval

2.6.2. Solution to the problem of aircraft non-preferential service for the “trombone”-type standard arrival diagram

2.6.3. Queuing theory apparatus application to computation of passengers’ requests fulfillment before and after landing in the airport

2.6.3.1. Computation of probabilistic state for the system of passengers queue non-preferential service

2.6.3.2. Computation of probabilistic state for the system of passengers queue preferential service

2.6.3.3. Algebraic generalization of conditions for system’s probabilistic state shift

2.6.3.4. Choice of the number of passenger service channels in the airport based on the minimal average cost criterion with the interaction between channels

References for div. 2

3. Automated algorithms of air traffic controller’s activities support

3.1. Algorithm of the aircraft 4D trajectory vertical adjustment according to air traffic controller’s instructions

3.2. Solution algorithm of automated response to aviation hub airspace configuring structure modification

3.3. Setting up a problem of optimized queue of aircrafts for landing on the different aerodromes with standard arrival routes configuration

3.4. Algorithm of aircraft priority assignment for landing on a given aerodrome without consideration of its distance from the respective standard arrival route

3.5. Algorithm of sequential forming of aircraft priority lists for a given standard arrival route

3.6. Algorithm of priority assignment for aircraft landing on a given runway

3.6.1. Setting up a problem of arrival flow forming after haphazard modification of at least one arrival route of the aviation hub

3.6.2. Algorithm of landing priority assignment for randomly situated aircrafts with random courses

References for div. 3

4. Automation methods for in-trail flight safety level monitoring

4.1. Setting up a problem of air traffic management automation on a given flight level

4.2. On penalty coefficients for integral in-trail air traffic performance criterion

4.3. Management and safety control synthesis for in-trail air traffic

4.4. Results of in-trail movement modeling for two aircrafts

References for div. 4

5. Automated algorithms of airlines, aerodrome services, and ATM regulator interaction during innovative CDM-technologies implementation

5.1. General approach and principles of CDM

5.1.1. Airport integration in the ATM network

5.1.2. CDM systems in different airports of the world

5.2. CDM system in Sheremetyevo airport

5.2.1. Key conceptual modifications during A-CDM procedures implementation

5.2.2. Implementation process of A-CDM system project in Sheremetyevo airport

5.2.3. Demand-Capacity adjustment on the strategic stage of flight planning

5.2.4. Airlines operator’s role in air traffic schedule forming

5.2.5. Airport coordinator’s role in air traffic schedule forming

5.2.6. The role of the central bank of schedules and slots (CBSS)

5.2.7. The role of the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.3. Conception elements of Sheremetyevo airport CDM system

5.3.1. Conception element “Data exchange”

5.3.2. Conception element “Staged approach”

5.3.3. Conception element “Personalized taxiing time”

5.3.4. Personalized taxiing time for arrivals

5.3.5. Personalized taxiing time for departures

5.3.6. Conception element “General procedure during preparation for departure”

5.3.7. Conception element “Collaborative decision making in severe operation environment”

5.3.8. Conception element “Joint control on flight information updating”

5.3.8.1. Flight update message (FUM) — data exchange with the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.3.8.2. Early DPI (E-DPI) – data exchange with the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.3.8.3. Target DPI (T-DPI) - data exchange with the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.3.8.4. ATC DPI (A-DPI) – data exchange with the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.3.8.5. Cancel DPI (C-DPI) - data exchange with the Head Center of Unified ATM System

5.4. Risk management

5.5. Conclusion

References for div. 5

Contents